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Navigating Galileo's Square-Cube Law in Organizational Growth

I recently read an article describing Galileo's Square-Cube Law which states that as a shape grows in size, its volume grows faster than its surface. I began to wonder how this might apply to organizations with extremely large "footprints": International, many specialized departments, corporate structure directed by governing bodies, chains of command and layers of approval, and providing products and services to a large and diverse demographic. Certainly most large governments and national healthcare systems would also fall into this category.

As organizations grow and complexity increases, do they inevitably become more difficult to manage? Might an organization's efficiency, effectiveness, and even overall relevance be significantly impaired by growth? The term "scalability" comes to mind... the scalability of systems, processes, people, technology, physical and digital storage space, and overall manageability, capability, and stability. How many small but great organizations have suffered as a result of growth where customers have witnessed or experienced first hand a deterioration in quality and overall service that might be attributed to that growth?

In the natural world, Galileo's Square-Cube Law teaches us that as a shape grows, its volume expands faster than its surface area. This principle, although initially observed in physical structures, finds intriguing parallels in the realm of large organizations. As enterprises and institutions grow, their complexities often outpace their ability to manage effectively, leading to challenges in efficiency, effectiveness, and overall relevance. This is even more prevalent during periods of rapid growth.

The Scaling Challenge

Much like the law's implications for physical structures, large organizations face a similar conundrum. As they expand in size, their internal dynamics become increasingly intricate. Bureaucracy, layered hierarchies, and intricate and complex processes can create bottlenecks that hinder agility and responsiveness. The challenge lies in finding the delicate balance between growth and maintaining operational efficiency.

A tangled web made up of string, similar to a fishing net, with leaves in the background

Complexity versus Manageability

The inherent nature of organizations evolving into vast entities brings about a surge in complexity. Decision-making processes become convoluted, and communication channels may suffer from information overload. Leaders grapple with the dilemma of maintaining control while fostering innovation. Striking the right balance is essential to ensure that the organization remains nimble in an ever-changing landscape.

Efficiency Implications

As organizations scale, there's a risk of diminishing returns on efficiency. What once worked seamlessly in a smaller setting may become cumbersome on a larger scale. Streamlining processes and adopting Lean and Agile methodologies become imperative to counteract the bureaucratic inertia that often accompanies growth. Embracing technology and digital transformation becomes not just an option but a necessity.

Relevance in a Changing World

A stacked Venn diagram depicting local, regional, national, and global growth

The ability of an organization to adapt and stay relevant is crucial for its long-term success. Large organizations must constantly reassess their strategies and structures to align with evolving trends and technological advancements. Failure to do so may result in becoming obsolete and/or irrelevant, much like the inefficiencies that arise when a shape outgrows its optimal proportions.

Scalability Lessons for the Future

Understanding the challenges posed by the Square-Cube Law in organizational growth provides valuable insights for the future. Truly understanding your organization's current value streams, processes, and capabilities is essential when committed to growing your business. Remember that what you have today may not be scalable to meet the needs of of your future larger self.

A man and woman (couple) embracing in a dance
Photo by Natalia Shuvalova. Visit

Embracing a culture of adaptability, fostering innovation, and leveraging technology are key components of ensuring scalability without sacrificing efficiency and adversely affecting the customer experience. A commitment to continuous improvement, whether you call it Lean, Six Sigma, Agile, or "avocado" that inspires periodic evaluations of structures and processes and continually evaluating and adopting, when appropriate, new enabling technologies will help organizations proactively address potential issues before they become significant hurdles.

Mastering the Dance and Embracing Change

In the ever-changing landscape of the corporate world, navigating the challenges of scalability is akin to mastering the dance between growth and efficiency. By acknowledging the parallels with Galileo's Square-Cube Law, organizations can learn valuable lessons on managing complexity, ensuring efficiency, and staying relevant in an increasingly dynamic environment. The key lies in embracing change, fostering agility, and proactively shaping the future rather than reacting to it.

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